Extraction of pigments from the hottest vegetables

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Extraction of pigments in vegetables

the color and luster of food is an important sensory index of food. Synthetic pigments are widely used in the food industry to increase the color and luster, but research shows that generally synthetic pigments have varying degrees of toxicity, and some even carcinogenicity. Therefore, the development of natural and harmless edible pigments is of great significance to ensure human health. Vegetables have a wide variety of colors and are a huge resource pool of pigments. Natural edible pigments extracted from vegetables not only have high safety, but also have certain nutritional value and health care effects. Moreover, natural pigments are expensive and have broad market prospects. They can promote the value-added of vegetables, which is a development direction of vegetable deep processing. This paper will introduce the pigments in several vegetables and their extraction methods

I. extract lycopene from tomatoes

1. Properties and functions of lycopene lycopene is an oil-soluble pigment, which is sensitive to light, oxygen and heat. It is a kind of carotenoids and a strong antioxidant. Its antioxidant capacity is more than 100 times that of vitamin E, far more than other pigments. Carotene β The biological activity of carotene can effectively remove the learned free radicals in the body, prevent and repair cell damage, inhibit the oxidation of DNA, and thus prevent the occurrence of cancer. At present, lycopene, as a pigment, is used in ketchup and tomato juice products in a small amount, and is mostly used in health food and pharmaceutical industries

2. Extraction of lycopene

lycopene extraction is generally divided into two methods: organic solvent extraction and carbon dioxide supercritical extraction. Carbon dioxide supercritical extraction is difficult in large-scale production. At present, organic solvent extraction is mainly used. First, tomatoes are processed into tomato paste or tomato powder, and extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol or n-hexane and other solvents, After filtration and concentration, the crude product of lycopene - oleoresin with a content of less than 6% can be obtained, and the product with high purity can be obtained by further freezing crystallization

Second, extract Capsanthin from pepper

1. Properties of capsanthin

capsanthin (capsanthin), also known as capsanthin and capsanthin, pure capsanthin is a dark carmine needle crystal. Capsanthin used in food additives and other aspects is dark red paste like, with a spicy taste. Its main ingredients are capsanthin, carotenoids, capsicum, academic and technical alkali and vegetable oil. It is insoluble in water and soluble in vegetable oil and ethanol. When the pH value is 3-The products are all over the country and all over the world-12, the color tone does not change. It has good light resistance and heat resistance, acid and alkali resistance and oxidation resistance. It can be used for color packaging on cans and cakes, as well as fat food, condiments, fruit juice and ice cream

2. Extraction of capsanthin

the common methods of extracting capsanthin can be roughly divided into three methods: oil dissolution method, solvent method and supercritical fluid extraction method. At present, the solvent method is mainly used in production. The fruits of Capsicum are extracted with organic solvents (dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, acetone, 2-propanol, methanol, n-hexane, ethanol), and then the oil soluble products of organic solvents are removed. Water dispersible products can be prepared by using lactose, Arabic gum and other excipients and sugarcane fatty acid esters

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